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Car windshield: how it is produced and what the symbols indicate



Car windshield: how it is produced and what the symbols indicate

After having seen how much active safety technology there is in a windshield, let’s see how a windshield is produced which, even in its most basic version, must guarantee 34% of the rigidity of the body even from the cheapest city cars. Are all car windshields the same? We now know that since the discovery of laminated glass (see the origins of the first car windshield), the synthetic resin inside it plays a key role when hit by a stone or in the event of an accident, but of how many layers a modern windshield? What are the quality controls what car glass manufacturers do before shipping the crystals to the European Carglass distribution centers? What is the difference between an Original Equipment Manufacturer ( OEM ) windshield and an Original Equipment Equivalent ( OEE ) windshield? And the best thing is get your windshield from wholesale car windshields.


How do you recognize a windshield approved in Europe from one approved in the USA or China ? The production of a quality windshield is as important as the presence of the markings, which are not just the car manufacturer’s logo. Before being marketed, a windshield must be homologated and therefore meet the technical requirements imposed by the directives of each country in which homologation is requested (find out which tests a windshield must pass to obtain homologation). Depending on the country of homologation, the symbol on the windscreen frame changes (you can also find two homologations at the same time if requested in more countries) but the tests it is subjected to are almost the same and only change in some additional assessments. Below we try to clarify the meaning of the most common symbols that can be found on the windshield and windows of the car and understand – for example if you are buying a used car, read how not to get scammed in the Used Car Buying Guide – if that glass has been replaced because the car has suffered an attempted theft or an accident.


The symbols that you might find on the car windows (see attached image) are:

  1. The car manufacturer ‘s logo : it is not indicative of quality and safety and may not be there.
  2. The logo of the glass manufacturer: unlike the logo of the car manufacturer it is always present on the glass.
  3. Tempered : indicates the type of glass produced by heat treatment. It is usually found on the side windows and rear window .
  4. Laminated : indicates the type of laminated glass, inside which the PVB sheet is present. It is usually present on the windshield .
  5. I, II, III, IV, V, VI : I – reinforced windshield, II – conventional multi-layer windshield (most popular on cars), III – multi-layer windshield which has received further treatment, IV – polycarbonate windshield, V – glass with a light transmission coefficient of less than 70%, VI – glass with a light transmission coefficient of not less than 70%.
  6. E ‘x’ : European country that has granted type approval – 1 Germany, 2 France, 3 Italy, 4 Netherlands, 5 Sweden, 6 Belgium, 7 Hungary, 8 Czech Republic, 9 Spain, 10 Yugoslavia, 11 England , 12 Austria, 13 Luxembourg, 14 Switzerland, 16 Norway, 17 Finland, 18 Denmark, 19 Romania, 20 Poland, 21 Portugal, 22 Russia, 23 Greece, 24 Ireland, 25 Croatia, 26 Slovenia, 27 Slovakia, 28 Belarus, 29 Estonia, 31 Bosnia-Herzegovina, 32 Latvia, 37 Turkey, 42 European Economic Community, 43 Japan.
  7. ECE R43 : compliance with European safety standards and type approval number.
  8. CCC : Compliance with China’s safety standards.
  9. M, AS, DOT : Compliance with US safety standards.
  10. Production date and identification number : on new cars this usually coincides with the vehicle’s production date and is the same on all windows.

We now know that a windshield with these symbols is of quality even if it does not have the car manufacturer’s logo, but it will become safe only after it has been mounted correctly, as we see it later. But if a faulty windshield escapes the manufacturer’s controls, who prevents it from being accidentally installed on a customer’s car? Find out in Glass quality tests and checks.


The Chinese 250cc ATV’s Best Choice of 2022




The Chinese 250cc

Powerful 250 cc engine is a world of drive and emotions. Sporty character or stylish utilitarian disposition? The choice is yours. In any case, positive emotions are provided to you.


Chinese ATVs 250cc are suitable for those who love speed, extreme adrenaline. The high running performance of the four-wheeler allows you to drive it off-road without worrying that it will not cope with the obstacle.

The 250cc chinese atv differs from models with a smaller engine size by a mechanical motorcycle gearbox, power, maximum speed, and dimensions. At the same time, they are also inexpensive. Due to the variety of characteristics and configurations, you can find a model that suits you. This device is universal: it can be a sports quad bike, as it has 3-4 gears, a household assistant due to the clutch and the presence of the first gear, excellent equipment for hunting, fishing or country trips.

The 250cc chinese ATV is a model whose parameters take this four-wheeler from the class of practical and comfortable to the class of daring and fast. These are sports and utility all-terrain vehicles at the same time, with high maneuverability, cross-country ability, and a large supply of torque in different gears.

Characteristics and safety

Despite the low price, the 250 cc quad is a godsend in terms of running performance and technical equipment. This is a powerful machine that requires certain driving skills. Therefore, if you are not sure that you can harness this power, it is better to refrain from riding with a breeze.

At the same time, the device is as reliable as possible, it can be used on any type of terrain. This all-weather all-terrain vehicle is designed specifically to overcome mud, bumps, and loose surfaces. So, if you plan to ride on impassable areas, a 250cc quad is your choice.

SUVs have wear-resistant rubber, which provides effective braking in all weather conditions. For better grip on icy surfaces in winter, it is recommended to use snow chains.

A pleasant addition can be considered a four-stroke engine that makes a growling sound, as if calling to enjoy all the possibilities of this unpretentious technology.

Where to find a 250cc ATV

Want to buy an ATV for sports or country trips, but don’t know where to start? We will advise you! Open the catalog of the online store “Alibaba”, and you will definitely find what you need. We sell devices with a basic configuration (Lite) and with an extended one (Lux, Premium), presented in different colors. Each product card is accompanied by descriptions, photos, some have video reviews of the owners. See, choose!

Chinese ATVs do not mean bad, down with stereotypes. You can see for yourself the quality of our equipment by signing up for a test drive. We have low prices because we try to make motorsport affordable. Alibaba regularly improves ATV models to take into account all the needs of fans of our motorcycle brand.

Do you want to take a reliable and inexpensive 250cc Chinese ATV? Then you need to choose a trusted dealer who will offer favorable terms of cooperation. And just such a company is the Alibaba online store.

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Buying Guide of the Waffle Biscuit Machine




Buying Guide of the Waffle Biscuit Machine

Baking Waffles are not so easy and smooth but the waffle biscuit machine makes it easy for mom at home and for the chef at a restaurant to bake delicious waffle biscuits quickly. Waffle biscuits are the choices of every child, adult, and old man. They love to eat it as a side dish in the restaurant or at breakfast at home.

Waffle biscuits are the beloved food for the children. They love to eat it every time for breakfast with marshmallows and jam. Mom likes to give it to children for lunch at school. The popularity of this food is that it is easy to eat. You can also eat it on the walk or on the bus.

The baking of waffle biscuits is not as easy as butter but the waffle machine equipped with the latest technology makes it easy as butter. It is very handy to manage the demand in a manual way. The production of waffles on a large scale is possible only with the latest waffle machines. These machines come in a variety of operations.

Waffle machines are categorized according to their operations, just like manual, semi-automatic, and fully automatic. You have to consider the following steps before buying any commercial waffle biscuit baking machine.

Assess your need

First of all assess your demand and supply, whether you are in need of a new machine to fulfill the demand of the customer or consumers of waffle biscuits. You have to manage all your resources to purchase the manual or automatic machine for this purpose.

Consider your space

After assessing your need you have to manage the space for the machine which needs to occupy. Fully automatic machines occupied a large area irrespective of the semi-automatic or manual machines. Furthermore, Instead of that automatic machine produces a larger number of waffles biscuits.

Labor efficient

Manual machines require huge labor which increases the cost of operations. While automatic machines do not require any type of labor. They are operated with the help of a computer, touch system, or voice command.


Cost-effectiveness is the major part to consider before purchasing the waffle biscuit machine. Cost includes its operation cost, maintenance cost, and production cost as well. The machine’s productivity is calculated on the basis of outcome to its cost. If the cost is low it means the productivity of machines is positive and meaningful.

After-Sale Services

The machines are electronic and sometimes they need to be checked after some time of production. The owner has to buy that machine which has low maintenance cost and the company gives the warranty and guarantee about the machine. The workers install the machine in the factory and guide the labor on how to operate it.

Easy-to-Operate Machine

Some machines are very difficult to operate because they do not have a friendly graphic interface. But in contrast, the latest machines have a proper graphical user interface that assists the operator in the operation of machines.

Even the machine itself tells about the fault of the owner by beeping or giving the error message. The ease of operation makes the machine user-friendly and popular among the workers.

Operation type

According to operation, the machine is divided into 3 categories.

Manual waffle biscuit machine

Manual machines are required to fulfill the order in small quantities. In this scenario, the labor cost is increased. The labor is involved from the baking of flour to the packing of products.

Semi-Automatic waffle biscuit machine

Semi-automatic machines are a combination of manual and automatic machines. In this case, some part is done by the labor, and the rest of the work is managed by the waffle biscuit machine. The machines are popular to handle the order on the middle level.

Fully-Automatic waffle biscuit machine

The fully automatic machines are state of art of the latest technology. These machines can handle the project from start to end. There are also waffle biscuit machines available for the home. The mother or maid enjoys the waffle biscuit baking without too much effort.

These machines consumed little electricity to bake the waffle cone biscuit. Resultantly we conclude that fully automatic machines are feasible for large-scale production irrespective of the semi-automatic or manual machine.


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‘People (the TV Show!)’ Ends Its Run




‘People (the TV Show!)’ Ends Its Run

People (the TV Show!) will burst off the air after April, Dot Dash Meredith showed Thursday.


“After 12 months and a 1/2 of in a restricted variety of markets, People’s every day on-line and broadcast TV leisure information display will air its very last episode on the stop of April,” stated a Dot Dash Meredith spokesperson. “We are turning our complete interest to the evolution of People’s virtual, video, and print future, which includes our hit programming like People Magazine Investigates, People Puzzler, and Home Town Kickstart. We thank the complete group for their ardor and electricity in setting the display on each day.


“The People TV OTT app will preserve to circulation People and different Dot Dash Meredith branded content material like People in 10, Reality Check, and Red Carpet Live.”


People (the TV Show!) changed into first released in September 2020 after Meredith obtained owner, Time Inc., in January 2018 for $2.8 billion. The display is, to begin with, irked in 12 Meredith markets, which include Atlanta, Phoenix, St. Louis, Portland, Nashville, Kansas City, Hartford-New Haven, Greenville-Spartanburg, Las Vegas, Mobile-Pensacola, Flint-Saginaw, and Springfield-Holyoke, Mass. In October 2020, Meredith shrunk Sony Pictures Television’s income pressure to attempt to get the display cleared throughout the complete u. s. a. however, it by no means reached countrywide coverage.


In 2021, Meredith Local Media changed into offered to Gray Television and Meredith’s print property had been offered to Barry Diller’s IAC Dot Dash, with each offer ultimate in December. In March 2021, Meredith stated it had renewed People (the TV Show!) thru the 2023-24 TV season. In February 2022, IAC Dot Dash introduced that six of the magazines that had been a part of that deal, which include Entertainment Weekly and IN Style, could now not be posted as print editions, at the same time as People and Food & Wine could preserve as published magazines, at the least for now.


The now Gray-owned stations are thinking about a way to fill the one’s time slots, even though a lot of the one’s stations had already been searching at including extra neighborhood newscasts. WGCL Atlanta has already decided that it’ll upload a 7 p.m. newscast in People (the TV Show!)’s slot debuting on Monday, May 2, GM Erik Schrader instructed the body of workers on Wednesday. That station is likewise including a 7-nine a.m. newscast to debut on Monday, May nine. As a result of those additions, the station is seeking to lease many positions, which include producers, directors, editors, on-air talent, photographers, and virtual content material producers.


People (the TV Show!) changed into govt produced through former Access Hollywood EP Rob Silverstein and changed into hosted through Kay Adams and Laurence K. Jackson with correspondents Jeremy Parsons and Sandra Vergara and unique individuals Nancy O’Dell and Gretchen Carlson.

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